International Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Journal <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Journal</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of Astronomy and Astrophysics. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Every volume of this journal will consist of 4 issues. Every issue will consist of minimum 5 papers. Each issue will be running issue and all officially accepted manuscripts will be immediately published online. State-of-the-art running issue concept gives authors the benefit of 'Zero Waiting Time' for the officially accepted manuscripts to be published. This journal is an international journal and scope is not confined by the boundary of any country or region.</p> en-US International Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Journal Implications and Applications of Electroweak Quantum Gravity <p>We strongly believe that, the success of any unified model depends on its ability to involve gravity in microscopic models. To understand the mystery of final unification, in our earlier publications, we proposed two bold concepts:1) There exist three atomic gravitational constants associated with electroweak, strong and electromagnetic interactions. 2) There exists a strong elementary charge in such a way that its squared ratio with normal elementary charge is close to reciprocal of the strong coupling constant. In this review article we propose that, &nbsp;can be considered as a compound physical constant associated with electroweak gravity. With these new ideas, an attempt is made to understand and fit nuclear stability, binding energy and quark masses. We wish to emphasize that, nuclear binding energy can be fitted with four simple terms having one unique energy coefficient, &nbsp;With reference to proton-electron mass ratio, Newtonian gravitational constant can be estimated in a verifiable approach. Recently observed 3.5 keV photon seems to be an outcome of annihilation of a new charged small or tiny lepton of rest energy 1.75 keV. By questioning and understanding the integral nature of electron’s angular momentum, existence of the three atomic gravitational constants can be understood. By studying the stellar magnetic dipole moments with reference to weak and strong interactions, there is a possibility of confirming the existence of atomic gravitational constants.</p> U. V. S. Seshavatharam S. Lakshminarayana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-13 2020-01-13 13 30 Observations of Inertial-gravity Waves Observed from Long-lasting Meteor Trail Echoes <p>Horizontal background wind in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region of the Earth’s atmosphere deduced from the temporal displacement of a long- lasting meteor trail was estimated and investigated in this paper. The meteor trail echoes lasting more than 23 seconds in height range between 95 and 108 km as measured using the interferometry technique implemented at the Chung-Li 52 MHz radar, Chung-Li, Taiwan. The 3-meter electron density irregularities embedded in the meteor trail, which were responsible for the radar returns, were found without field-aligned property. Hodograph analysis reveals that the existence of an upward propagating inertia-gravity wave is associated with the vertical wavelength of 11.3 km. The wave-induced wind velocity and temperature perturbations combined with the background temperature profile of mass spectrometer and incoherent scatter (MSIS) model was used to estimate the height variation of the Richardson number (R<sub>i</sub>). It is found that the feature R<sub>i</sub> &lt; 0.25 occurred in height range from 98 to 99 km, which implies that the wave is very likely broken in this height region through convective instability that was associated with negative temperature gradient induced by the gravity wave. The characteristics of echo power and spectral width associated with the wave-breaking turbulences are also discussed.</p> M. Satyavani P. S. Brahmanandam P. S. V. Subba Rao C. T. Cheng Y. H. Chu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-11 2020-01-11 1 12 4G Model of Fractional Charge Strong-Weak Super Symmetry <p>To understand the mystery of final unification, in our earlier publications, we proposed that (1), there exist three atomic gravitational constants associated with electroweak, strong and electromagnetic interactions; and (2), there exists a strong interaction elementary charge (<em>e<sub>s</sub></em>) in such a way that, it's squared ratio with normal elementary charge is close to inverse of the strong coupling constant. In this context, starting from lepton rest masses to stellar masses, we have developed many interesting and workable relations. In this paper the electroweak field seems to be operated by a primordial massive fermion of rest energy 585 GeV. It can be considered as the zygote of all elementary particles and galactic dark matter. Proceeding further, with a characteristic fermion-boson mass ratio of 2.27, quarks can be classified into quark fermions and quark bosons. Considering strong charge conservation and electromagnetic charge conservation, fractional charge quark fermions and quark bosons can be understood. Quark fermions that generate observable massive baryons can be called as Fluons. Quark bosons that generate observable mesons can be called as Bluons. By considering a new hadronic fermion of rest energy 103.4 GeV, rest masses of fluons and bluons can be estimated and there by baryon masses and meson masses can be estimated. We emphasize that, 1) Strong interaction is one best platform for observing and confirming super symmetry (SUSY), 2) All observed baryons and mesons are SUSY particles only and 3) SUSY particles exist at all energy scales and are within the reach of current accelerators.</p> U. V. S. Seshavatharam S. Lakshminarayana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-02-08 2020-02-08 31 55 Significance and Applications of the Strong Coupling Constant in the Light of Large Nuclear Gravity and Up and Down Quark Clusters <p>As a hypothetical approach, strong interaction without repulsive forces can be assumed to be equivalent to a large gravitational coupling. Based on this concept, strong coupling constant can be defined as a ratio of the electromagnetic force and the gravitational force associated with proton, neutron,&nbsp;up quark and down quark. With respect to the product of strong coupling constant and fine structure ratio, we review our recently proposed two semi empirical relations and coefficients 0.00189 and 0.00642 connected with nuclear stability and binding energy. We wish to emphasize that- by classifying nucleons as ‘free nucleons’ and ‘active nucleons’, nuclear binding energy can be fitted with a new class of ‘three term’ formula having one unique energy coefficient. Based on the geometry and quantum nature, currently believed harmonic oscillator and spin orbit magic numbers can be considered as the lower and upper “mass limits” of quark clusters.</p> U. V. S. Seshavatharam S. Lakshminarayana ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-06 2020-03-06 56 68