Light Speed Expansion and Rotation of a Primordial Black Hole Universe having Internal Acceleration

Main Article Content

U. V. S. Seshavatharam
S. Lakshminarayana


With reference to primordial black holes, an attempt has been made to develop a practical model of cosmology. Main features of this integrated model are: Eternal role of Planck scale, light speed expansion and rotation of a primordial cosmic black hole, slow thermal cooling, internal acceleration and anisotropy. At any stage of cosmic expansion, there exists a tight correlation between cosmic angular velocity and cosmic temperature. At  present cosmic radius seems to be 140.56 times higher than the Hubble radius, angular velocity seems to be 140.56 times smaller than the Hubble parameter and cosmic age seems to be 140.56 times the Hubble age. An attempt is made to estimate galactic dark mass using MOND relation and cosmic angular velocity. Current cosmic graviton wave length seems to be around 4.9 mm. This model is free from ‘big bang’, ‘inflation’, ‘dark energy’, ‘flatness’ and ‘red shift’ issues.

Planck scale, primordial black hole, speed of light, dark matter, deep frozen matter, relativistic mass of a galaxy, cosmic anisotropy, internal acceleration, cosmic graviton wavelength.

Article Details

How to Cite
Seshavatharam, U. V. S., & Lakshminarayana, S. (2020). Light Speed Expansion and Rotation of a Primordial Black Hole Universe having Internal Acceleration. International Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Journal, 2(2), 9-27. Retrieved from
Review Article


Friedmann A. On the curvature of space. General Relativity and Gravitation. 1999;31(12):1991-2000.

Hawking SW. A brief history of time. Bantam Dell Publishing Group; 1988.

Seshavatharam UVS. Physics of rotating and expanding black hole universe. Progress in Physics. 2010;4:7-14.

Seshavatharam UVS. The Primordial cosmic black hole and the cosmic axis of evil. International Journal of Astronomy. 2012;1(2):20-37.

Seshavatharam UVS, Lakshminarayana S. Applications of hubble volume in atomic physics, nuclear physics, particle physics, quantum physics and cosmic physics. J. Nucl. Phy. Mat. Sci. Rad. A. 2013;1(1):45-60.

Seshavatharam UVS, Lakshminarayana S. Friedman cosmology: Reconsideration and new results. International Journal of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Science. 2014;1(2):16-26.

Seshavatharam UVS, Lakshminarayana S. On the evolving black holes and black hole cosmology-scale independent quantum gravity approach. Frontiers of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology. 2014;1(1):1-15.

Seshavatharam UVS, Lakshminarayana S. Black hole cosmology with propelling lambda term & hindu cosmic age. Prespacetime Journal. 2015;6(9):850-874.

Seshavatharam UVS, Lakshminarayana S. Role of Mach’s principle and quantum gravity in understanding cosmic evolution and cosmic red-shift. Frontiers of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology. 2015;1(1):24-30.

Tatum ET, Seshavatharam UVS, Lakshminarayana S. The basics of flat space cosmology. International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2015;5:116-124.

Seshavatharam UVS, Lakshminarayana S. Primordial hot evolving black holes and the evolved primordial cold black hole universe. Frontiers of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology. 2015;1(1):16-23.

Seshavatharam UVS, Lakshminarayana S. Cosmologically strengthening hydrogen atom in black hole universe. J. Nucl. Phy. Mat. Sci. Rad. A. 2016;3(2):265–278.

Seshavatharam UVS, Lakshminarayana S. On the possible role of continuous light speed expansion in black hole & Gravastar cosmology. Prespacetime Journal. 2016;7(3):584-600.

Seshavatharam UVS, Lakshminarayana S. A first step in evolving quantum cosmology. Journal of Physics: Conf. Series. 2019;1251:012045.

Seshavatharam UVS, Lakshminarayana S. An outline picture of a growing and rotating planck universe with emerging dark foam. Asian Journal of Research and Reviews in Physics. 2019;2(2):1-13.

Seshavatharam UVS, Lakshminarayana S. A practical model of godel–Planck–Hubble–Birch universe. Athens Journal of Sciences. 2019;6(3):211-230.

Bojowald M. Quantum cosmology: A review. Rep. Prog. Phys. 2015;78:023901.

Nielsen JT, Guffanti A, Sarkar S. Marginal evidence for cosmic acceleration from type Ia supernovae. Scientific Reports. 2016;6:35596.

Wei JJ, Wu XF, Melia F, Maier RS. Comparative analysis of the Supernova Legacy Survey sample with ΛCDM and the Rh=ct Universe. The Astronomical Journal. 2015;149:102.

Melia F, Fatuzzo M. The epoch of reionization in the R_h=ct universe. Monthly Notices of Royal Astronomical Society. 2016;456(4):3422-3431.

Arved Sapar. A perpetual mass-generating Planckian universe. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences. 2019;68(1):1-12.

Netchitailo VS. World-universe model-alternative to big bang model. Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology. 2020;6:133-158.

Mitra Abhas. Why the big bang model cannot describe the observed universe having pressure and radiation. Journal of Modern Physics. 2011;2:1436-42.

Steinhardt PJ, Abraham Loeb. Inflationary schism. Physics Letters B. 2014;736:142.

Poplawski NJ. The energy and momentum of the universe. Class. Quantum Grav. 2014;31:065005.

Carr BJ. Primordial black holes as a probe of cosmology and high energy physics. Physics Lect. Notes Phys. 2003;631:301-321.

Worsley Andrew. Advances in black hole physics and dark matter modelling of the galactic halo. Applied Physics Research. 2012;4(1):128-137.

Seshavatharam UVS, Lakshminarayana S. Nuclear mass density based high temperature stable black holes. Proceedings of the DAE Symp. on Nucl. Phys. 2014;59:804-805.

Birch P. Is the universe rotating? Nature. 1982;298:451-454.

Obukhov YN. On physical foundations and observational effects of cosmic rotation colloquium on cosmic rotation. In M Scherfner, T Chrobok, M. Shefaat (Eds). Colloquium on Cosmic Rotation, 23. Berlin: Wissenschaft und Technik Verlag; 2000.

Godlowski W. Global and local effects of rotation: Observational aspects. International Journal of Modern Physics. 2011;20(9):1643-1673.

Longo MJ. Detection of a dipole in the handedness of spiral galaxies with redshifts z ~ 0.04. Physics Letters B. 2011;699(4):224-229.

Chechin LM. Does the cosmological principle exist in the rotating universe? Gravitation and Cosmology. 2017;23(4):305-310.

Whittaker ET. Spin in the universe. Yearbook of Royal Society. Edinburgh. 1945;513.

Timkov Valery, Timkov SV. Rotating space of the universe as a source of dark energy and dark matter. The International Scientific-Technical Magazine: Measuring and Computing Devices in Technological Processes. 2015;3:200-204.

Lior Shamir. Multipole alignment in the large-scale distribution of spin direction of spiral galaxies. arXiv. 2004;02963v3.

Levkov DG, Panin AG, Tkachev II. Gravitational Bose-Einstein condensation in the kinetic regime. Physical Review Letters. 2018;121(15):151301.

Tatum ET. Dark matter as cold atomic hydrogen in its lower ground state. Book Chapter; 2020.


Bernard J. Wood, Duane J. Smythe, Thomas Harrison. The condensation temperatures of the elements: A reappraisal. American Mineralogist. 2019;104:844–856.

Planck Collaboration: Planck. Results. XIII. Cosmological Parameters; 2015.

Hubble EP. A relation between distance and radial velocity among extra-galactic nebulae. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 1962;15:168- 173.

Massimo Giovannini. Primordial backgrounds of relic gravitons. Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 2020;103774.

Aluri PK, Jain P. Large scale anisotropy due to pre-inflationary phase of cosmic evolution. Modern. Physical Letters A. 2012;27(4):1250014.

Perlmutter S, et al. Measurements of Ω and Λ from 42 high-redshift supernovae. The Astrophysical Journal. 1999;517(2):565.

Riess AG, et al. Observational evidence from supernovae for an accelerating universe and a cosmological constant. The Astronomical Journal. 1998;116(3):1009-1038.

Wang D, Meng XH. No evidence for dynamical dark energy in two models. Physical Review D. 2017;96(10): 103516.

Gamow G. The origin of elements and the separation of galaxies. Physical Review. 1948;74(4):505.

Brownstein JR, Moffat JW. Galaxy rotation curves without non-baryonic dark matter. The Astrophysical Journal. 2006;636:721–741.

Milgrom M. A modification of the Newtonian dynamics as a possible alternative to the hidden mass hypothesis. Astrophysical Journal. Part 1. 1983;270:365-370.

Seshavatharam UVS, Lakshminarayana S. Toy model of evolving and spinning quantum cosmology – A review. International Journal of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Science. 2018;5(1):1-13.