Tadpole Galaxy (UGC 10214) Morphology May be Formed by the Combination of the ROTASE Mechanism and Galactic Merging
International Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Journal,
The image of the Tadpole galaxy or Arp 188 or UGC 10214 is carefully studied in this paper, the alternative mechanism for the formation of the Tadpole galaxy is proposed based on the ROTASE model with the information extracted from the image. The Tadpole galaxy and the other two smaller galaxies formed a well isolated local galactic cluster with mutual gravitational interactions. The three galaxies are approaching each other in merging under the gravitational forces. The Tadpole galaxy was initially a normal galaxy with unequal X-matter emission, one side of X-matter emission was strong, but the other side of X-matter emission was weak or had no emission. The Tadpole galaxy initially had a fast motion to the pair of smaller galaxies and had relatively slow rotation, the straight-like arm was generated in this period. When the three galaxies are close enough, the rotation of the Tadpole galaxy increased significantly, and the weak side X-matter emission increased significantly also, so, both arms are strong and clearly visible. Two smaller galaxies are close enough to form a pair with the galactic bridge, and the pair penetrated the Tadpole galaxy through its second (short) arm, seriously distorted the second arm. The strong mutual gravitational tidal forces among the three galaxies pulled the central disc area of the Tadpole galaxy out of its disc plane, changed the Tadpole rotation axis, this caused the morphology of the Tadpole galaxy like a sandwich structure, in which, the short spiral arm is on top, the central bar disc is in the middle, and the other long arm is at the bottom. The galaxy has a right-handed spiral chirality. The local cluster of the three galaxies will merge very soon in the time scale of the universe evolution, the morphology of the cluster will continue to change, the long straight tail will be invisible after all hydrogens are depleted. The two smaller galaxies formed a tadpole galaxy with double clumps; therefore, due to the huge size difference between the two different types of tadpole galaxies and the unique morphology, the current Arp 188 can be viewed as a hybrid of one type of tadpole galaxy parasitic inside of another type of tadpole galaxy, or humorously, a woman bearing a baby of another race through a transplant.
- Tadpole galaxy
- galactic cluster
- galactic collision
- galactic merge
- ROTASE model
- X-matter emission
How to Cite
De Grijs R, Lee T, Clemencia Mora Herrera M, Fritze-v. Alvensleben U, Anders P. Stellar populations and star cluster formation in interacting galaxies with the Advanced Camera for Surveys, New Astronomy. 2003;8:155-171.
Tran D, Sirianni M, Ford C, Illingworth D, Clampin M, Hartig G, et al. Advanced Camera for surveys observations of young star clusters in the interacting galaxy UGC 10214. ApJ. 2003; 585:750-755.
Rosado-Belza D, Lisenfeld U, Hibbard J, Kniermann K, Ott J, Verley S, Boquien M, Jarrett T, C. Xu K. Star formation and gas in the minor merger UGC 10214. A&A. 2019;623: A154.
Toomre A. Toomre, J. Galactic bridges and tails. ApJ. 1972;178:623-666.
Trentham N, Möller O, Ramirez-Ruiz E. Completely dark galaxies: their existence, properties and strategies for finding them, MNRAS. 2001;322:658-668.
Jarrett H, Polletta M, Fournon IP, P, et al. Remarkable disk and off-nuclear starburst activity in the tadpole galaxy as revealed by the spitzer space telescope. AJ. 2006;131(1):261-281.
Benitez N, Ford H, Bouwens R, Menanteau F, Blakeslee J, Gronwall C, e. al. Faint galaxies in deep advanced camera for surveys observations. ApJS. 2004;150:1–18.
Lin C, Shu F. On the spiral structure of disk galaxies. ApJ. 1964;140:646- 655.
Shu F. Six decades of spiral density wave theory. Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 2016;54:667-724.
Julian W, Toomre A, Non-axisymmetric responses of differentially rotating disks of stars. ApJ. 1966;146:810-830.
Romero-Gómez M, Masdemont J, Athanassoula E, GarcíaGómez C. The origin of rR1 ring structures in barred galaxies. A&A. 2006;453:39-45.
Romero-Gómez M, Athanassoula E, Masdemont J, GarcíaGómez C, The formation of spiral arms and rings in barred galaxies. A&A. 2007;472:63-75.
Athanassoula E, Romero-Gómez M, Masdemont J, Rings and spirals in barred galaxies – I. Building blocks. MNRAS. 2009;394(1):67-81.
Athanassoula M, Romero-Gómez M, Bosma A, Masdemont J. Rings and spirals in barred galaxies – II. Ring and spiral morphology. MNRAS. 2009;400(4):1706-1720.
Athanassoula E, Romero-Gómez M, Bosma A, Masdemont J. Rings and spirals in barred galaxies – III. Further comparisons and links to observations. MNRAS. 2010;407(3):1433-1448.
Pan H. Spirals and rings in barred galaxies by the ROTASE model. IJP. 2021; 9(6):286-307.
Pan H, New formulas and mechanism for the spiral arm formation of Galaxies. IJP. 2019;7(3):73-85.
Pan H, Application of new formulas for the spiral arm formation to selected galaxies with special patterns. AJAA. 2020;8(3):45-66.
Elmegreen G, Elmegreen D. Tadpole galaxies in the hubble ultra deep field. ApJ. 2010;722:1895-1907.
Sánchez Almeida J, Muñoz-Tuñón C, Elmegreen DM, Elmegreen BG, Mendez-Abreu J. Local tadpole galaxies: dynamics and metallicity. ApJ. 2013;767:74.
Abstract View: 190 times
PDF Download: 40 times