On the Central Engine of the Compact Steep Spectrum Source and Source Phenomena

Ezeugo, Jeremiah Chukwuemerie *

Department of Physics and Industrial Physics, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


In this paper, with some plausible assumptions we use analytical methods and statistical methods to show that the central engine (which presumably houses a super massive blackhole) of a typical compact steep spectrum source fuels the source observed physical phenomena. With analytical methods, we show that the power of the source central engine Capture1.PNG relates with some source observable parameters according to the relation, Capture.PNG  (where is mass of hydrogen nucleus,  is speed of light,  is jet opening solid angle,  is conversion efficiency of matter into radiation,  is source linear size,  is source luminosity, is jet internal pressure, and Q  is a constant). The indices,  and , are to be estimated. In order to semi-empirically obtain estimates of the values of the indices, we carry out linear regression analysis of source linear sizes (D) against their corresponding luminosities (P) . Results show that Capture3.PNG , while ψ = 32 is a positive integer. Hence, the aforementioned relation may be re-written as Capture2.PNG. This expression may be interpreted to mean that if some external factors are held fixed, the source central engine fuels/powers the observed physical properties/phenomena of the CSS source.

Keywords: Central engine, radio jets, luminosity, linear size, radio sources, quasars, steep spectrum

How to Cite

Chukwuemerie, E. J. (2022). On the Central Engine of the Compact Steep Spectrum Source and Source Phenomena. International Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Journal, 4(1), 133–138. Retrieved from https://journaliaarj.com/index.php/IAARJ/article/view/70


Download data is not yet available.


Robson I. Active Galactic Nuclei, John Wiley and Sons Ltd., England; 1996.

Ezeugo JC. On the components of large extended extragalactic radio sources. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. 2021a;22(1):20–23.

Ezeugo JC. On the intergalactic media densities & dynamical ages of some powerful radio sources and implications. Journal of Physical Sciences and Application. 2021b;11(1):29–34.

Readhead AC. Evolution of Powerful Extragalactic Radio Sources. In proc. Colloquium on Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei, ed. Kohen, M., and Kellermann, K. (USA: National Academy of Sciences, Berkman Center, Irvine). 1995; 92:11447–11450.

Jackson JC. Radio source evolution and unified schemes, Publications of Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 1999; 16:124–129.

Kawakatu N, Kino M. The Velocity of Large-scale Jets in a Declining Density Medium. In Serie de Conferencias. Triggering Relativistic Jets, ed. W.H. Lee and E. Ramirez-Ruiz. 2007;27:192–197.

Mahatma VH, Hardcastle MJ, Williams WL. LoTSS DR1: Double-double Radio Galaxies in the HETDEX Field, Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2019;622:A13.

Mingo B, Croston JH, Hardcastle MJ. Revisiting the Fanaroff-Riley Dichotomy and Radio Galaxy Morphology with the LOFAR Two-Meter Sky Survey (LoTSS), Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2019;488:2701-2721.

Hardcastle WL, Williams WL, Best PN. Radio-loud AGN in the First LoTSS Data Release — The Lifetimes and Environmental Impact of Jet-Driven Sources, Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2019;622:A12.

Ezeugo JC. Compact spectrum source size and cosmological implication. Journal of Research in Applied Mathematics. 2021c;7(2):1–4.

Ezeugo JC. Jet in the more extended radio sources and unification with compact steep spectrum sources. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. 2021d;22: 14– 19.

O’Dea CP. The compact steep spectrum and gigahertz peaked spectrum radio sources. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 1998; 110:493–532.

Fanti C, Fanti R, Dallacasa D, Schillizzi RT, Spencer RE, Stanghellini C. Are compact steep spectrum sources young, Astronomy and Astrophysics. 1995;302: 317–326.

Urry CM. AGN Unification: An Update, Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series 1; 2004.

Ezeugo JC, Ubachukwu AA. The spectral turnover–linear size relation and the dynamical evolution of compact steep spectrum sources. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2010;408: 2256–2260.