Open Access Review Article

What Did LIGO Detect Being Gravitational Waves or Noises?

Mei Xiaochun, Huang Zhixun, Hu Suhui, Yuan Canlun

International Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Journal, Page 46-59

This paper reveals that LIGO’s (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) so-called gravitational wave discoveries are all fictions. What LIGO detected were actually noises not gravitational waves. These noises abundantly appeared in LIGO’s laser interferometers. LIGO had previously calculated a large number of theoretical waveform of gravitational waves according to numerical relativity method and stored them in a database. Then LIGO’s team elected several noises which satisfied the time correlation conditions and were similar to the theoretical waveform in the database, modifying and packaging them, announced the discovery of gravitational waves. In fact, no any astronomical or astrophysical event was founded which was related to the corresponding gravitational wave bursts. LIGO’s team also used band-pass and band-stop filters to process the theoretically calculated gravitational wave forms, resulting in severe distortions. Such processed curves were no longer to represent the gravitational waves predicted by general relativity. It was meaningless to compare them with so-called observed data. In addition, according to the theoretical calculation of general relativity, the process of two black holes merging and producing gravitational waves lasted more than three seconds. However, the observed data from LIGO experiment was consistent with the theoretical waveform only in the time window of 0.1 ~ 0.13 seconds. In LIGO's publications and communications to the scientific community and the social public, these issues were never mentioned. LIGO's so-called gravitational wave discovery was essentially a computer simulation and graphics-matching game that had nothing to do with actual astronomical and astrophysical processes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Unification of Extragalactic Radio Sources and Re-Acceleration of Radio Jets

Ezeugo Jeremiah Chukwuemerie

International Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Journal, Page 1-7

We use statistical methods of analysis to show that Large extended extragalactic radio sources (large EGRS) and compact steep spectrum (CSS) sources are similar sources evolving in different environments. Because of the diversity of their ambient media, one suffers higher magnitude of jet re-acceleration than the other. Linear regression analysis of observed source linear sizes, , of large extended extragalactic radio quasars against their individual observed redshifts,  was carried out. With appreciable correlation coefficient, result shows that  relates with redshift according to the equation, ; where  is a constant. The relation shows that projected source size is smaller at earlier epoch in the evolution of the universe. In addition, if we take  to be distance between any two points in space, then the relation may mean that the diameter of the universe is smaller at earlier epoch of its evolution. Moreover, with some plausible assumption, we find that jet velocity may be written as, . This indicates that mechanism of jet production derives from the source central core (presumed to house a super massive blackhole), as well as, from cosmic evolution. Since cosmic evolution is propelled by dark energy, the relation simply shows that dark energy enhances jet expansion more than blackhole power. Dark energy creates more empty spaces. It is anti-gravity in nature, and is believed to be the driving force behind cosmic dilation. Moreover, we estimate the magnitude of the effect of dark energy on the jet expansion to be three times the effect caused by blackhole power. Therefore, this result suggests that in addition to other factors, a culprit for re-acceleration mechanism for radio jets is dark energy. In order to check the authenticity of the assertion, we carry out linear regression analyses of observed luminosities,, against observed redshifts for both the extended extragalactic radio quasars and CSS quasars. With good correlations in both cases, we obtain ; where  and  for the extended quasars and CSS quasars respectively. The results show strong dependence of source luminosity on redshift. Moreover, the staggering difference in their indices suggestively implies that if we match the two samples at similar redshifts, luminosities of CSS quasars will be higher than those of the more extended sources. Hence, the results show that at similar epoch, luminosities of the more extended quasars are more extinguished (or more attenuated) than those of the CSS quasars. The jets and lobes of the larger/extended quasars are located in the intergalactic medium (IGM). This medium is very much rarefied and dark energy should be expected to exhibit more effect there than in the interstellar medium (ISM). On the other hand, the components of the CSS sources are sub-galactic. This means that they are buried in the dense ISM. In this medium, there is lesser manifestation of dark energy. Therefore, the disparity in the two indices (0.04 and 4.33) simply indicates manifestation of dark energy. Due to more rapid expansion of the IGM in which the jets and lobes of the extended sources are located, their luminosities are diluted more by more spaces created by dark energy in that medium. This shows that Large EGRS and CSS sources are similar sources evolving in different ambient media. Therefore, because of the diversity of their ambient media, large EGRS suffers higher magnitude of jet re-acceleration than the CSS source. In addition to this, we may state that dark energy is a suspect in enhancement of re-acceleration of the extragalactic jets. In conclusion, our results suggest that in addition to being similar sources evolving in different ambient media, a factor which fuels re-acceleration of extragalactic radio jets is dark energy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tadpole Galaxy (UGC 10214) Morphology May be Formed by the Combination of the ROTASE Mechanism and Galactic Merging

Hongjun Pan

International Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Journal, Page 8-18

The image of the Tadpole galaxy or Arp 188 or UGC 10214 is carefully studied in this paper, the alternative mechanism for the formation of the Tadpole galaxy is proposed based on the ROTASE model with the information extracted from the image. The Tadpole galaxy and  the other two smaller galaxies formed a well isolated local galactic cluster with mutual gravitational interactions. The three galaxies are approaching each other in merging under the gravitational forces. The Tadpole galaxy was initially a normal galaxy with unequal  X-matter emission, one side of X-matter emission was strong, but the other side of X-matter emission was weak or had no emission. The Tadpole galaxy initially had a fast motion to the pair of smaller galaxies and had relatively slow rotation, the straight-like arm was generated in this period. When the three galaxies are close enough, the rotation of the Tadpole galaxy increased significantly, and the weak side X-matter emission increased significantly also, so, both arms are strong and clearly visible. Two smaller galaxies are close enough to form a pair with the galactic bridge, and the pair penetrated the Tadpole galaxy through its second (short) arm, seriously distorted the second arm. The strong mutual gravitational tidal forces among the three galaxies pulled the central disc area of the Tadpole galaxy out of its disc plane, changed the Tadpole rotation axis, this caused the morphology of the Tadpole galaxy like a sandwich structure, in which, the short spiral arm is on top, the central bar disc is in the middle, and the other long arm is at the bottom. The galaxy has a right-handed spiral chirality. The local cluster of the three galaxies will merge very soon in the time scale of the universe evolution, the morphology of the cluster will continue to change, the long straight tail will be invisible after all hydrogens are depleted. The two smaller galaxies formed a tadpole galaxy with double clumps; therefore, due to the huge size difference between the two different types of tadpole galaxies and the unique morphology, the current Arp 188 can be viewed as a hybrid of one type of tadpole galaxy parasitic inside of another type of tadpole galaxy, or humorously, a woman bearing a baby of another race through a transplant.

Open Access Original Research Article

One-dimensional Mass and the Sisterhood of Habitable Planets

John A. T. Bye

International Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Journal, Page 19-25

This paper shows how the conversion of dark matter into ordinary matter (one-dimensional mass into three-dimensional mass) which occurs under a gravitational equilibrium will, when the principal mass is similar to that of the Sun, create a terrestrial planet which has a planetary temperature suitable for the greenhouse effect acting on its gaseous water vapour envelope, to produce a permanent surface liquid water body.  The stellar mass statistics indicate on the assumption that the dark matter conversion process is universal, that this condition is likely to occur.  Hence it is predicted that there are many habitable sister planets to Earth in the Universe.

Open Access Original Research Article

Einstein’s Equations of Gravity Fields have No Linear Wave Solutions under Weak Conditions

Mei Xiaochun

International Astronomy and Astrophysics Research Journal, Page 26-45

In the theory of gravity wave of general relativity, the metric of gravitational field was written as  \(g_{\mu v}=G_{u v}+h_{\mu \nu}\) .It was proved that as long as  \(h_{u v}\) was a small quantity of first order under weak condition, by using four harmonic coordinate conditions, the Einstein's gravitational field equation in vacuum can be transformed into a linear wave equation  \(\partial^{2} h_{u v}=0\) , thus predicting the existence of gravitational waves. It is proved in this paper that there are many serious problems in the theory of gravity wave of general relativity. 1. The gravitational wave metric used in the theory and the detection of gravitational wave is not a direct result by solving the gravitational field equation of general relativity, but a hypothesis that has not been proved in mathematics and physics. 2. This gravitational wave metric does not satisfy the gravitational field equation  \(R_{\mu v}=0\) in vacuum under weak condition. Therefore, the Einstein's equations of gravitational field can not be reduced to linear wave equations, and general relativity does not and can not predict the existence of gravitational waves. 3. The four harmonic coordinate conditions were used to derive the linear wave equation of gravitational wave in general relativity, but they are not tenable. This is the main reason why the gravitational wave metric does not satisfy the motion equation of general relativity. 4. The harmonious coordinate conditions can be satisfied by transforming them to other coordinate systems. But in this case, the metric tensors of gravitational wave become constants, meaning that the gravitational field disappears, let alone the gravitational waves. 5. The present gravitational wave detection was regarded to involve the extremely strong field of black hole collision in which  \(h_{u v}\) was not a small quantity without wave solutions. However, general relativity still used linear wave equations to describe gravitational waves generated by the collision of black holes. The gravitational wave theory of general relativity contradicts itself. 6. The gravitational wave delayed radiation formula of general relativity is also untenable due to the chaotic calculations and wrong coordinate transformations. 7. This paper also discusses the existence of gravitational wave based on the revised Newton's theory of gravitation by introducing magneto-like gravitational component. 8. Finally, Chen Yongming's formula of electric-like gravitational wave radiation based on the Newton's theory of gravity is introduced. The theory is used to calculate the gravitational radiation of pulsar binary PSR1913+16, and the result is that the gravitational radiation reduces the distance of binary by 3.12 mm per period. Taylor and Hulls observed a decrease of 3.0951 mm per cycle, a difference of less than 1% comparing with the calculation by the Chen Yongming's formula. So the conclusion of this paper is that general relativity does not prove the existence of gravitational waves. We can describe gravitational radiation in terms of the revised Newtonian gravity theory in flat space-time, the Einstein's gravity theory of curved space-time is unnecessary.